Cardiac Investigations
Following an abnormal ECG the CAA require a number of investigations (depending on the abnormality). In some situations flying is perimtted whilst awaiting the investigations, but in other the pilots is grounded until the investigations are complete. We are able to perform these investigations usually all in one sitting avoiding  the need for repeat attendance.
Echocardiography
​This is an ultrasound scan of the heart to look at the heart muscle, lvalves and the pressures in the heart. It can also look at the aorta,the main blood vessel arising from the heart which in some conditions can become enlarged.
24 Hour Ambulatory BP
​This monitors records the blood pressure over a full 24 hours including at night. This is a very useful tool in diagnosing hypertension which is associated with an increased risk of stroke and heart attack.  For pilots not able to reattend the following day to return the monitor, we have packaging allowing for the monitor to be safely returned for analysis.
24 Hour Ambulatory ECG (Holter Monitor)
This monitor records the heart rhythm (ECG) for 24-48 hours. It is worn during a normal day. For pilots not able to reattend the following day to return the monitor, we have packaging allowing for the monitor to be safely returned for analysis.
Exercise ECG 
During the exercise test the pilot walks at a fast walk for approximately 9 minutes on a treadmill that increases in steepness and speed every 3 minutes. During the test the ECG is recorded and the blood pressure and heart rate response to exericse and to recovery is assessed.
Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram
This is a scan to assess the hear muscles response to stress. Echocardiogram images of the heart are obtained, and then using an intravenous drug the heart rate is increased. We then assess 16 regions of the heart to see if any region fails to repond to the drug stimulation, indicating the possibility of a problem with the blood supply to the heart.
Coronary Angiography
This is an invasive procedure to directly take pictures of the arteries of the heart directly. it involves putting a small tube in an artery in the wrist and passing a smaller tube called a catheter round to the heart and injecting dye into the arteries whilst taking X-ray pictures.
Coronary CT Calcium Scoring and Angiography
CT calcium scoring is an effective way to assess for coronary artery disease and is non invasive. The radiation dose from a CT coronary angiogram is very low.
Cardiac MRI Imaging
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR),    imaging gives superb imaging of tht structure of the heart and also the presence or absence of fibrosis which can be a marker of a disease process. CMR may be required in certain pilots who present with ectopic (or extra) heart beats. 
Aviation Cardiology Services